3. Nikkhepakaŗ¹o

Tikanikkhepakath±

985. Ett±vat± kusalattiko sabbesa½ kusal±didhamm±na½ padabh±jananayena vitth±rito hoti. Yasm± pana yv±ya½ kusalattikassa vibhajananayo vutto, sesatikaduk±nampi eseva vibhajananayo hoti– yath± hi ettha, eva½ ‘katame dhamm± sukh±ya vedan±ya sampayutt±? Yasmi½ samaye k±m±vacara½ kusala½ citta½ uppanna½ hoti somanassasahagata½ ń±ŗasampayutta½ r³p±rammaŗa½ v±…pe… ye v± pana tasmi½ samaye ańńepi atthi paµiccasamuppann± ar³pino dhamm± µhapetv± vedan±khandha½, ime dhamm± sukh±ya vedan±ya sampayutt±’ti-±din± anukkamena sabbatikadukesu sakk± paŗ¹itehi vibh±jananaya½ sallakkhetu½– tasm± ta½ vitth±radesana½ nikkhipitv±, ańńena n±tisaŖkhepan±tivitth±ranayena sabbatikadukadhammavibh±ga½ dassetu½ katame dhamm± kusal±ti nikkhepakaŗ¹a½ ±raddha½. Cittupp±dakaŗ¹ańhi vitth±radesan±, aµµhakath±kaŗ¹a½ saŖkhepadesan±. Ida½ pana nikkhepakaŗ¹a½ cittupp±dakaŗ¹a½ up±d±ya saŖkhepo, aµµhakath±kaŗ¹a½ up±d±ya vitth±roti saŖkhittavitth±radh±tuka½ hoti. Tayida½, vitth±radesana½ nikkhipitv± desitatt±pi, heµµh± vuttak±raŗavasen±pi, nikkhepakaŗ¹a½ n±m±ti veditabba½. Vuttańheta½–
M³lato khandhato c±pi, dv±rato c±pi bh³mito;
atthato dhammato c±pi, n±mato c±pi liŖgato;
nikkhipitv± desitatt±, nikkhepoti pavuccat²ti.
Idańhi t²ŗi kusalam³l±n²ti-±din± nayena m³lato nikkhipitv± desita½. Ta½sampayutto vedan±kkhandhoti khandhato. Ta½samuµµh±na½ k±yakammanti dv±rato. K±yadv±rappavattańhi kamma½ k±yakammanti vuccati. Sukhabh³miya½, k±m±vacareti bh³mito nikkhipitv± desita½. Tattha tattha atthadhamman±maliŖg±na½ vasena desitatt± atth±d²hi nikkhipitv± desita½ n±m±ti veditabba½.
Tattha kusalapadaniddese t±va t²ŗ²ti gaŗanaparicchedo. Kusal±ni ca t±ni m³l±ni ca, kusal±na½ v± dhamm±na½ hetupaccayapabhavajanakasamuµµh±nanibbattakaµµhena m³l±n²ti kusalam³l±ni. Eva½ atthavasena dassetv± id±ni n±mavasena dassetu½ alobho adoso amohoti ±ha. Ett±vat± yasm± m³lena mutta½ kusala½ n±ma natthi, tasm± catubh³makakusala½ t²hi m³lehi pariy±diyitv± dassesi dhammar±j±. Ta½sampayuttoti tehi alobh±d²hi sampayutto. Tattha alobhena sampayutte saŖkh±rakkhandhe, ados±moh±pi alobhena sampayuttasaŖkh±rakkhandhagaŗana½yeva gacchanti. Sesadvayavasena sampayogepi eseva nayo. Iti catubh³makakusala½ puna ta½sampayuttakacatukkhandhavasena pariy±diyitv± dassesi dhammar±j±. Ta½samuµµh±nanti tehi alobh±d²hi samuµµhita½. Imin±pi nayena tadeva catubh³mikakusala½ tiŗŗa½ kammadv±r±na½ vasena pariy±diyitv± dassesi dhammar±j±. Eva½ t±va kusala½ t²su µh±nesu pariy±diyitv± dassita½.
986. Akusalepi eseva nayo. Dv±dasannańhi akusalacitt±na½ ekampi m³lena mutta½ n±ma natth²ti m³lena pariy±diyitv± dassesi dhammar±j±. Ta½sampayuttacatukkhandhato ca uddha½ akusala½ n±ma natth²ti t±neva dv±dasa akusalacitt±ni catukkhandhavasena pariy±diyitv± dassesi. Dhammar±j± k±yakamm±divasena pana nesa½ pavattisabbh±vato kammadv±ravasena pariy±diyitv± dassesi dhammar±j±. Ya½ panettha tadekaµµh± ca kiles±ti-±di vutta½, tattha ekasmi½ citte puggale v± µhitanti ‘ekaµµha½’. Tattha ekasmi½ citte µhita½ sahajekaµµha½ n±ma hoti. Ekasmi½ puggale µhita½ pah±nekaµµha½ n±ma. Tena lobh±din± ańńena v± tattha tattha niddiµµhena saha ekasmi½ µhitanti tadekaµµha½. Tattha ‘katame dhamm± sa½kiliµµhasa½kilesik±? T²ŗi akusalam³l±ni– lobho doso moho, tadekaµµh± ca kiles±’ti sa½kiliµµhattike; ‘katame dhamm± h²n±? T²ŗi akusalam³l±ni– lobho doso moho, tadekaµµh± ca kiles±’ti h²nattike ‘katame dhamm± akusal±? T²ŗi akusalam³l±ni– lobho doso moho, tadekaµµh± ca kiles±’ti imasmi½ kusalattike; ‘katame dhamm± sa½kiliµµh±? T²ŗi akusalam³l±ni– lobho doso moho, tadekaµµh± ca kiles±’ti kilesagocchake ‘katame dhamm± saraŗ±? T²ŗi akusalam³l±ni lobho doso moho, tadekaµµh± ca kiles±ti saraŗaduke’ti– imesu ettakesu µh±nesu ‘sahajekaµµha½’ ±gata½.
Dassanenapah±tabbattike pana ‘im±ni t²ŗi sa½yojan±ni, tadekaµµh± ca kiles±’ti, dassanenapah±tabbahetukattikepi ‘im±ni t²ŗi sa½yojan±ni, tadekaµµh± ca kiles±’ti, puna tattheva t²ŗi sa½yojan±ni– sakk±yadiµµhi vicikicch± s²labbatapar±m±so, ime dhamm± dassanenapah±tabb±; tadekaµµho lobho doso moho, ime dhamm± dassanenapah±tabbahet³; tadekaµµh± ca kiles± ta½sampayutto vedan±khandho…pe… vińń±ŗakkhandho, ta½samuµµh±na½ k±yakamma½ vac²kamma½ manokamma½, ime dhamm± dassanenapah±tabbahetuk±ti; sammappadh±navibhaŖge “tattha katame p±pak± akusal± dhamm±? T²ŗi akusalam³l±ni– lobho doso moho, tadekaµµh± ca kiles±”ti (vibha. 391)– imesu pana ettakesu µh±nesu ‘pah±nekaµµha½’ ±gatanti veditabba½.
987. Aby±katapadaniddeso utt±natthoyev±ti. Imasmi½ tike t²ŗi lakkhaŗ±ni tisso pańńattiyo kasiŗuggh±µim±k±sa½ ajaµ±k±sa½ ±kińcańń±yatanassa ±rammaŗa½ nirodhasam±patti ca na labbhat²ti vutta½.
988. Vedan±ttikaniddese sukhabh³miyanti ettha yath± tambabh³mi kaŗhabh³m²ti tambakaŗhabh³miyova vuccanti, eva½ sukhampi sukhabh³mi n±ma. Yath± ucchubh³mi s±libh³m²ti ucchus±l²na½ uppajjanaµµh±n±ni vuccanti, eva½ sukhassa uppajjanaµµh±na½ cittampi sukhabh³mi n±ma. Ta½ idha adhippeta½. Yasm± pana s± k±m±vacare v± hoti, r³p±vacar±d²su v±, tasm±ss± ta½ pabheda½ dassetu½ k±m±vacareti-±di vutta½. Sukhavedana½ µhapetv±ti y± s± sukhabh³miya½ sukhavedan±, ta½ µhapetv±. Ta½sampayuttoti t±ya µhapit±ya sukhavedan±ya sampayutto. Sesapadadvayepi imin±va nayena attho veditabboti.
Imasmi½ tike tisso vedan±, sabba½ r³pa½, nibb±nanti idampi na labbhati. Ayańhi tiko kusalattike ca alabbham±nehi imehi ca t²hi koµµh±sehi muttako n±ma. Ito paresu pana tikadukesu p±¼ito ca atthato ca ya½ vattabba½ siy± ta½ sabba½ pad±nukkamena m±tik±kath±yańceva kusal±d²na½ niddese ca vuttameva. Ya½ pana yattha visesamatta½ tadeva vakkh±ma.
991. Tattha vip±kattike t±va kińc±pi ar³padhamm± viya r³padhamm±pi kammasamuµµh±n± atthi, an±rammaŗatt± pana te kammasarikkhak± na hont²ti s±rammaŗ± ar³padhamm±va kammasarikkhakatt± vip±k±ti vutt±, b²jasarikkhaka½ phala½ viya. S±lib²jasmińhi vapite aŖkurapatt±d²su nikkhantesupi s±liphalanti na vuccati. Yad± pana s±lis²sa½ pakka½ hoti pariŗata½, tad± b²jasarikkhako s±li eva s±liphalanti vuccati. AŖkurapatt±d²ni pana b²jaj±t±ni b²jato nibbatt±n²ti vuccanti, evameva r³pampi kammajanti v± up±diŗŗanti v± vattu½ vaµµati.
994. Up±diŗŗattike kińc±pi kh²ŗ±savassa khandh± ‘amh±ka½ m±tulatthero amh±ka½ c³¼apitutthero’ti vadant±na½ paresa½ up±d±nassa paccay± honti, maggaphalanibb±n±ni pana aggahit±ni apar±maµµh±ni anup±diŗŗ±neva. T±ni hi, yath± divasa½ santatto ayogu¼o makkhik±na½ abhinis²danassa paccayo na hoti, evameva tejussadatt± taŗh±m±nadiµµhivasena gahaŗassa paccay± na honti. Tena vutta½– ime dhamm± anup±diŗŗa-anup±d±niy±ti.
998. Asa½kiliµµha-asa½kilesikesupi eseva nayo.
1000. Vitakkattike vitakkasahaj±tena vic±rena saddhi½ kusalattike alabbham±n±va na labbhanti.
1003. P²tisahagatattike p²ti-±dayo attan± sahaj±tadhamm±na½ p²tisahagat±dibh±va½ datv± saya½ piµµhivaµµak± j±t±. Imasmińhi tike dve domanassasahagatacittupp±d± dukkhasahagata½ k±yavińń±ŗa½ upekkh±vedan± r³pa½ nibb±nanti– idampi na labbhati. Ayańhi tiko kusalattike ca alabbham±nehi imehi ca pańcahi koµµh±sehi muttako n±ma.
1006. Dassanenapah±tabbattike sańńojan±n²ti bandhan±ni. Sakk±yadiµµh²ti vijjam±naµµhena sati khandhapańcakasaŖkh±te k±ye; saya½ v± sat² tasmi½ k±ye diµµh²ti ‘sakk±yadiµµhi’. S²lena sujjhitu½ sakk±, vatena sujjhitu½ sakk±, s²lavatehi sujjhitu½ sakk±ti gahitasam±d±na½ pana s²labbatapar±m±so n±ma.
1007. Idh±ti des±padese nip±to. Sv±ya½ katthaci loka½ up±d±ya vuccati. Yath±ha– “idha tath±gato loke uppajjat²”ti (d². ni. 1.189). Katthaci s±sana½. Yath±ha– “idheva, bhikkhave, samaŗo idha dutiyo samaŗo”ti (ma. ni. 1.139; a. ni. 4.241). Katthaci ok±sa½. Yath±ha–
“Idheva tiµµham±nassa, devabh³tassa me sato;
punar±yu ca me laddho, eva½ j±n±hi m±ris±”ti. (D². ni. 2.369).
Katthaci padap³raŗamattameva. Yath±ha– “idh±ha½, bhikkhave, bhutt±v² assa½ pav±rito”ti (ma. ni. 1.30). Idha pana loka½ up±d±ya vuttoti veditabbo.
Assutav± puthujjanoti ettha pana ‘±gam±dhigam±bh±v± ńeyyo assutav± iti’. Yassa hi khandhadh±tu-±yatanapaccay±k±rasatipaµµh±n±d²su uggahaparipucch±vinicchayarahitatt± diµµhipaµisedhako neva ‘±gamo’, paµipattiy± adhigantabbassa anadhigatatt± neva ‘adhigamo’ atthi, so ‘±gam±dhigam±bh±v± ńeyyo assutav± iti’. Sv±ya½–
Puth³na½ janan±d²hi, k±raŗehi puthujjano;
puthujjanantogadhatt±, puthuv±ya½ jano iti. (D². ni. aµµha. 1.7; ma. ni. aµµha. 1.2; a. ni. aµµha. 1.1.51; paµi. ma. aµµha. 2.1.130; c³¼ani. aµµha. 88; netti. aµµha. 56).
So hi puth³na½ n±nappak±r±na½ kiles±d²na½ janan±d²hi k±raŗehi puthujjano. Yath±ha– “puthu kilese janent²ti puthujjan±. Puthu avihatasakk±yadiµµhik±ti puthujjan±. Puthu satth±r±na½ mukhullokik±ti puthujjan±. Puthu sabbagat²hi avuµµhit±ti puthujjan±. Puthu n±n±bhisaŖkh±re abhisaŖkharont²ti puthujjan±. Puthu n±n±-oghehi vuyhant²ti puthujjan±. Puthu n±n±sant±pehi santappant²ti puthujjan±. Puthu n±n±pari¼±hehi pari¹ayhant²ti puthujjan±. Puthu pańcasu k±maguŗesu ratt± giddh± gadhit± mucchit± ajjhosann± lagg± laggit± palibuddh±ti puthujjan±. Puthu pańcahi n²varaŗehi ±vut± nivut± ovut± pihit± paµicchann± paµikujjit±ti puthujjan±”ti (mah±ni. 94). Puth³na½ v± gaŗanapathamat²t±na½ ariyadhammaparammukh±na½ n²cadhammasam±c±r±na½ jan±na½ antogadhatt±pi puthujjan±. Puthu v± aya½– visu½yeva saŖkhya½ gato, visa½saµµho s²lasut±diguŗayuttehi ariyehi– janotipi puthujjano. Evametehi ‘assutav± puthujjano’ti dv²hi padehi ye te–
“Duve puthujjan± vutt±, buddhen±diccabandhun±;
andho puthujjano eko, kaly±ŗeko puthujjano”ti. (D². ni. aµµha. 1.7; a. ni. aµµha. 1.1.51; paµi. ma. aµµha. 2.1.130; c³¼ani. aµµha. 88).
Dve puthujjan± vutt±, tesu andhaputhujjano vutto hot²ti veditabbo.
Ariy±na½ adass±v²ti-±d²su ariy±ti ±rakatt± kilesehi, anaye na iriyanato, aye iriyanato, sadevakena lokena ca araŗ²yato buddh± ca paccekabuddh± ca buddhas±vak± ca vuccanti. Buddh± eva v± idha ariy±. Yath±ha– “sadevake, bhikkhave, loke…pe… tath±gato ariyoti vuccat²”ti (sa½. ni. 5.1098).