Nid±nakath±

Tattha kenaµµhena abhidhammo? Dhamm±tirekadhammavisesaµµhena. Atirekavisesatthad²pako hettha ‘abhi’-saddo. “B±¼h± me dukkh± vedan± abhikkamanti no paµikkamanti” (ma. ni. 3.384; sa½. ni. 5.195) “abhikkantavaºº±”ti-±d²su (sa½. ni. 1.1-2) viya. Tasm± yath± samussitesu bah³su chattesu ceva dhajesu ca ya½ atirekappam±ºa½ visesavaººasaºµh±nañca chatta½, ta½ ‘aticchattan’ti vuccati, yo atirekappam±ºo n±n±vir±gavaººavisesasampanno ca dhajo so ‘atidhajo’ti vuccati, yath± ca ekato sannipatitesu bah³su r±jakum±resu ceva devesu ca yo j±tibhogayasa-issariy±disampatt²hi atirekataro ceva visesavantataro ca r±jakum±ro so ‘atir±jakum±ro’ti vuccati, yo ±yuvaººa-issariyayasasampatti-±d²hi atirekataro ceva visesavantataro ca devo so ‘atidevo’ti vuccati, tath±r³po brahm±pi ‘atibrahm±’ti vuccati, evameva ayampi dhammo dhamm±tirekadhammavisesaµµhena ‘abhidhammo’ti vuccati.
Suttantañhi patv± pañcakkhandh± ekadeseneva vibhatt±, na nippadesena; abhidhamma½ patv± pana suttantabh±jan²ya-abhidhammabh±jan²yapañhapucchakanay±na½ vasena nippadesato vibhatt±. Tath± dv±das±yatan±ni, aµµh±rasa dh±tuyo, catt±ri sacc±ni, b±v²satindriy±ni, dv±dasapadiko paccay±k±ro. Kevalañhi indriyavibhaªge suttantabh±jan²ya½ natthi, paccay±k±re ca pañhapucchaka½ natthi. Suttantañca patv± catt±ro satipaµµh±n± ekadeseneva vibhatt±, na nippadesena; abhidhamma½ patv± pana tiººampi nay±na½ vasena nippadesatova vibhatt±. Tath± catt±ri sammappadh±n±ni, catt±ro iddhip±d±, satta bojjhaªg±, ariyo aµµhaªgiko maggo, catt±ri jh±n±ni, catasso appamaññ±yo, pañca sikkh±pad±ni, catasso paµisambhid±. Kevalañhettha sikkh±padavibhaªge suttantabh±jan²ya½ natthi. Suttanta½ patv± ca ñ±ºa½ ekadeseneva vibhatta½ na nippadesena; tath± kiles±. Abhidhamma½ patv± pana “ekavidhena ñ±ºavatth³”ti-±din± (vibha. 751) nayena m±tika½ µhapetv± nippadesatova vibhatta½. Tath± ekakato paµµh±ya anekehi nayehi kiles±. Suttanta½ patv± ca bh³mantaraparicchedo ekadeseneva vibhatto, na nippadesena; abhidhamma½ pana patv± tiººampi nay±na½ vasena bh³mantaraparicchedo nippadesatova vibhatto. Eva½ dhamm±tirekadhammavisesaµµhena abhidhammoti veditabbo.
Pakaraºaparicchedato panesa dhammasaªgaº²vibhaªgadh±tukath±puggalapaññattikath±vatthuyamakapaµµh±n±na½ sattanna½ pakaraº±na½ vasena µhito. Ayamettha ±cariy±na½ sam±nakath±. Vitaº¹av±d² pan±ha– ‘kath±vatthu kasm± gahita½? Nanu samm±sambuddhassa parinibb±nato aµµh±rasavass±dhik±ni dve vassasat±ni atikkamitv± moggaliputtatissatthereneta½ µhapita½? Tasm± s±vakabh±sitatt± cha¹¹etha nan’ti. ‘Ki½ pana chappakaraº±ni abhidhammo’ti? ‘Eva½ na vad±m²’ti. ‘Atha ki½ vades²’ti. ‘Sattappakaraº±n²’ti. ‘Katara½ gahetv± satta karos²’ti? ‘Mah±dhammahadaya½ n±ma atthi, etena saha satt±’ti. ‘Mah±dhammahadaye apubba½ natthi, katipay±va pañh±v±r± avases±, kath±vatthun±va saddhi½ satt±’ti. ‘No kath±vatthun±, mah±dh±tukath± n±ma atthi, t±ya saddhi½ satt±’ti. ‘Mah±dh±tukath±ya½ apubba½ natthi, appamattik±va tanti avases±. Kath±vatthun±va saddhi½ satt±’ti.
Samm±sambuddho hi sattappakaraº±ni desento kath±vatthu½ patv± y± es± puggalav±re t±va cat³su pañhesu dvinna½ pañcak±na½ vasena aµµhamukh± v±dayutti ta½ ±di½ katv± sabbakath±maggesu asampuººabh±ºav±ramatt±ya p±¼iy± m±tika½ µhapesi. S± panes± “puggalo upalabbhati saccikaµµhaparamatthen±ti. ¾mant±. Yo saccikaµµho paramattho tato so puggalo upalabbhati saccikaµµhaparamatthen±ti. Naheva½ vattabbe. ¾j±n±hi niggaha½…pe… puggalo nupalabbhati saccikaµµhaparamatthen±ti. ¾mant±. Yo saccikaµµho paramattho tato so puggalo nupalabbhati saccikaµµhaparamatthen±ti. Naheva½ vattabbe. ¾j±n±hi niggaha½…pe…. Sabbattha puggalo upalabbhati sabbattha puggalo nupalabbhati, sabbad± puggalo upalabbhati sabbad± puggalo nupalabbhati, sabbesu puggalo upalabbhati sabbesu puggalo nupalabbhati saccikaµµhaparamatthen±”ti (kath±. 15-16) eva½ paµhama½ v±da½ niss±ya paµhama½ niggaha½, dutiya½ niss±ya dutiya½ …pe… aµµhama½ niss±ya aµµhama½ niggaha½ dassentena satth±r± µhapit±. Imin± nayena sabbattha m±tik±µhapana½ veditabba½. Ta½ paneta½ m±tika½ µhapento ima½ disv± µhapesi– mama parinibb±nato aµµh±rasavass±dhik±na½ dvinna½ vassasat±na½ matthake moggaliputtatissatthero n±ma bhikkhu bhikkhusahassamajjhe nisinno sakav±de pañca suttasat±ni parav±de pañc±ti suttasahassa½ samodh±netv± d²ghanik±yappam±ºa½ kath±vatthuppakaraºa½ bh±jessat²ti.
Moggaliputtatissattheropi ida½ pakaraºa½ desento na attano ñ±ºena desesi, satth±r± pana dinnanayena µhapitam±tik±ya desesi. Iti satth±r± dinnanayena µhapitam±tik±ya desitatt± sakalampeta½ pakaraºa½ buddhabh±sitameva n±ma j±ta½. Yath± ki½? Yath± madhupiº¹ikasuttant±d²ni Madhupiº¹ikasuttantasmiñhi bhagav± “yatonid±na½ bhikkhu purisa½ papañcasaññ±saªkh± samud±caranti, ettha ce natthi abhinanditabba½ abhivaditabba½ ajjhositabba½, esevanto r±g±nusay±nan”ti (ma. ni. 1.202) m±tika½ µhapetv± uµµh±y±san± vih±ra½ p±visi.
Dhammappaµigg±hak± bhikkh³ mah±kacc±natthera½ upasaªkamitv± dasabalena µhapitam±tik±ya attha½ pucchi½su. Thero pucchitamattakeneva akathetv± dasabalassa apacitidassanattha½ “seyyath±pi ±vuso puriso s±ratthiko s±ragaves²”ti (ma. ni. 1.203) s±ropama½ ±haritv± s±rarukkho viya bhagav± s±kh±pal±sasadis± s±vak±, “so h±vuso bhagav± j±na½ j±n±ti, passa½ passati cakkhubh³to ñ±ºabh³to dhammabh³to brahmabh³to vatt± pavatt± atthassa ninnet± amatassa d±t± dhammass±m² tath±gato”ti satth±ra½ thometv± punappuna½ therehi y±cito satth±r± µhapitam±tik±ya attha½ vibhajitv± “±kaªkham±n± ca pana tumhe ±yasmanto bhagavanta½yeva upasaªkamitv± etamattha½ paµipuccheyy±tha sace sabbaññutaññ±ºena saddhi½ sa½sandiyam±na½ sameti gaºheyy±tha, no ce m± gaºhitth±”ti imin± adhipp±yena “yath± vo bhagav± by±karoti tath± na½ dh±reyy±th±”ti vatv± uyyojesi.
Te satth±ra½ upasaªkamitv± pucchi½su. Satth± dukkathita½ kacc±nen±ti avatv± suvaºº±liªga½ uss±pento viya g²va½ unn±metv± supupphitasatapattasassirika½ mah±mukha½ p³rento brahmassara½ nicch±retv± s±dhu s±dh³ti therassa s±dhuk±ra½ datv± “paº¹ito, bhikkhave, mah±kacc±no, mah±pañño bhikkhave mah±kacc±no, ma½ cepi tumhe, bhikkhave, etamattha½ paµipuccheyy±tha, ahampi ta½ evameva½ by±kareyya½ yath± ta½ mah±kacc±nena by±katan”ti (ma. ni. 1.205) ±ha.
Eva½ satth±r± anumoditak±lato paµµh±ya ca pana sakala½ sutta½ buddhabh±sita½ n±ma j±ta½. ¾nandatther±d²hi vitth±ritasuttesupi eseva nayo. Evameva samm±sambuddho sattappakaraº±ni desento kath±vatthu½ patv± vuttanayena m±tika½ µhapesi. Ýhapento ca pana ima½ addasa–
Mama parinibb±nato aµµh±rasavass±dhik±na½ dvinna½ vassasat±na½ matthake moggaliputtatissatthero n±ma bhikkhu bhikkhusahassamajjhe nisinno sakav±de pañca suttasat±ni parav±de pañc±ti suttasahassa½ samodh±netv± d²ghanik±yappam±ºa½ kath±vatthuppakaraºa½ bh±jessat²ti.
Moggaliputtatissattheropi ima½ pakaraºa½ desento na attano ñ±ºena desesi, satth±r± pana dinnanayena µhapitam±tik±ya desesi. Iti satth±r± dinnanayena µhapitam±tik±ya desitatt± sakalampeta½ pakaraºa½ buddhabh±sitameva j±ta½. Eva½ kath±vatthun±va saddhi½ satta pakaraº±ni abhidhammo n±ma.
Tattha dhammasaªgaº²pakaraºe catasso vibhattiyo– cittavibhatti r³pavibhatti nikkhepar±si atthuddh±roti. Tattha k±m±vacarakusalato aµµha, akusalato dv±dasa, kusalavip±kato so¼asa, akusalavip±kato satta, kiriyato ek±dasa; r³p±vacarakusalato pañca, vip±kato pañca, kiriyato pañca; ar³p±vacarakusalato catt±ri, vip±kato catt±ri, kiriyato catt±ri; lokuttarakusalato catt±ri, vip±kato catt±r²ti ek³nanavuti citt±ni cittavibhatti n±ma. Cittupp±dakaº¹antipi etasseva n±ma½. Ta½ v±can±maggato atirekachabh±ºav±ra½, vitth±riyam±na½ pana anantamaparim±ºa½ hoti.
Tadanantara½ ekavidhena duvidhen±ti-±din± nayena m±tika½ µhapetv± vitth±rena vibhajitv± dassit± r³pavibhatti n±ma. R³pakaº¹antipi etasseva n±ma½. Ta½ v±can±maggato atirekadvibh±ºav±ra½. Vitth±riyam±na½ pana anantamaparim±ºa½ hoti.
Tadanantara½ m³lato khandhato dv±rato bh³mito atthato dhammato n±mato liªgatoti eva½ m³l±d²hi nikkhipitv± desito nikkhepar±si n±ma. So–
M³lato khandhato c±pi, dv±rato c±pi bh³mito;
atthato dhammato c±pi, n±mato c±pi liªgato;
nikkhipitv± desitatt±, nikkhepoti pavuccati.
Nikkhepakaº¹antipi tasseva n±ma½. Ta½ v±can±maggato timattabh±ºav±ra½. Vitth±riyam±na½ pana anantamaparim±ºa½ hoti.
Tadanantara½ pana tepiµakassa buddhavacanassa atthuddh±rabh³ta½ y±va saraºaduk± nikkhitta½ aµµhakath±kaº¹a½ n±ma. Yato mah±pakaraºiy± bhikkh³ mah±pakaraºe gaºanac±ra½ asallakkhent± gaºanac±ra½ sam±nenti. Ta½ v±can±maggato dvimattabh±ºav±ra½. Vitth±riyam±na½ pana anantamaparim±ºa½ hoti.
Iti sakalampi dhammasaªgaº²pakaraºa½ v±can±maggato atirekaterasamattabh±ºav±ra½. Vitth±riyam±na½ pana anantamaparim±ºa½ hoti. Evameta½–
Cittavibhatti r³pañca, nikkhepo atthajotan±;
gambh²ra½ nipuºa½ µh±na½, tampi buddhena desita½.
Tadanantara½ vibhaªgappakaraºa½ n±ma. Ta½ khandhavibhaªgo ±yatanavibhaªgo dh±tuvibhaªgo saccavibhaªgo idriyavibhaªgo paccay±k±ravibhaªgo satipaµµh±navibhaªgo sammappadh±navibhaªgo iddhip±davibhaªgo bojjhaªgavibhaªgo maggaªgavibhaªgo jh±navibhaªgo appamaññ±vibhaªgo sikkh±padavibhaªgo paµisambhid±vibhaªgo ñ±ºavibhaªgo khuddakavatthuvibhaªgo dhammahadayavibhaªgoti aµµh±rasavidhena vibhatta½.
Tattha khandhavibhaªgo suttantabh±jan²ya-abhidhammabh±jan²yapañhapucchak±na½ vasena tidh± vibhatto. So v±can±maggato pañcamattabh±ºav±ro, vitth±riyam±no pana ananto aparim±ºo hoti. Tato para½ ±yatanavibhaªg±dayopi eteheva t²hi nayehi vibhatt±. Tesu ±yatanavibhaªgo v±can±maggato atirekabh±ºav±ro, dh±tuvibhaªgo dvimattabh±ºav±ro. Tath± saccavibhaªgo. Indriyavibhaªge suttantabh±jan²ya½ natthi; v±can±maggato panesa atirekabh±ºav±ramatto. Paccay±k±ravibhaªgo chamattabh±ºav±ro, pañhapucchaka½ panettha natthi. Satipaµµh±navibhaªgo atirekabh±ºav±ramatto; tath± sammappadh±na iddhip±dabojjhaªgamaggaªgavibhaªg±. Jh±navibhaªgo dvibh±ºav±ramatto, appamaññ±vibhaªgo atirekabh±ºav±ramatto. Sikkh±padavibhaªgepi suttantabh±jan²ya½ natthi; v±can±maggato panesa atirekabh±ºav±ramatto; tath± paµisambhid±vibhaªgo. ѱºavibhaªgo dasavidhena vibhatto; v±can±maggato panesa timattabh±ºav±ro. Khuddakavatthuvibhaªgopi dasavidhena vibhatto; v±can±maggato panesa timattabh±ºav±ro. Dhammahadayavibhaªgo tividhena vibhatto; v±can±maggato panesa atirekadvibh±ºav±ramatto. Sabbepi vitth±riyam±n± anant± aparim±º± honti. Evameta½ vibhaªgappakaraºa½ v±can±maggato pañcati½samattabh±ºav±ra½; vitth±rato pana anantamaparim±ºa½ hoti.